Headache caused by dystonia involving neck muscles, with abnormal movements or defective posturing of the neck or head due to muscular hyperactivity.
A. Neck and posterior head pain fulfilling criterion C
B. Craniocervical dystonia is demonstrated by abnormal movements or defective posturing of the neck or head due to muscular hyperactivity
C. Evidence of causation demonstrated by at least two of the following:
1. headache has developed in temporal relation to the onset of craniocervical dystonia
2. headache has significantly worsened in parallel with progression of the craniocervical dystonia
3. headache has significantly improved or resolved in parallel with improvement in or resolution of the craniocervical dystonia
4. headache location corresponds to the location of the dystonic muscle(s)
D. Not better accounted for by another ICHD-3 diagnosis.
Focal dystonias of the head and neck accompanied by 11.2.3 Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia are pharyngeal dystonia, spasmodic torticollis, mandibular dystonia, lingual dystonia and a combination of the cranial and cervical dystonias (segmental craniocervical dystonia).
Pain is presumably caused by local muscle contraction and secondary changes in sensitization.