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13.1.1 Classical trigeminal neuralgia
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13.1.2.1 Painful trigeminal neuropathy attributed to acute Herpes zoster
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13.1.2.2 Post-herpetic trigeminal neuropathy
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13.1.2.3 Painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy
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13.1.2.4 Painful trigeminal neuropathy attributed to multiple sclerosis (MS) plaque
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13.1.2.5 Painful trigeminal neuropathy attributed to space occupying lesion
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13.2 Glossopharyngeal neuralgia
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13.3 Nervus intermedius (facial nerve) neuralgia
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13.4 Occipital neuralgia
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13.5 Optic neuritis
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13.6 Headache attributed to ischaemic ocular motor nerve palsy
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13.7 Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
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13.8 Paratrigeminal oculosympathetic (Raeder’s) syndrome
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Goadsby PJ. Raeder’s syndrome: paratrigeminal paralysis of the oculopupillary sympathetic system. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 2002; 72: 297-299.

13.9 Recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy
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Weiss AH, Phillips JO. Ophthalmoplegic migraine. Pediatric Neurol 2004; 30: 64-66.

13.10 Burning mouth syndrome (BMS)
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Eliav E, Kamran B, Schaham R, Czerninski R, Gracely RH, Benoliel R. Evidence of chorda tympani dysfunction in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Am Dent Assoc 2007; 138: 628-633.

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Sardella A, Gualerzi A, Lodi G, Sforza C, Carrassi A, Donetti E. Morphological evaluation of tongue mucosa in burning mouth syndrome. Arch Oral Biol 2012; 57: 94-101.

Scala A, Checchi L, Montevecchi M, Marini I, Giamberardino MA. Update on burning mouth syndrome: overview and patient management. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2003; 14: 275-291.

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13.11 Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP)
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Aggarwal VR, McBeth J, Lunt M, Zakrzewska J, Macfarlane GJ. Epidemiology of chronic symptoms that are frequently unexplained: do they share common associated factors? Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35; 468-476.

Forssell H, Tenovuo O, Silvoniemi P, Jääskeläinen SK. Differences and similarities between atypical facial pain and trigeminal neuropathic pain. Neurology 2007; 69: 1451-1459.

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Pfaffenrath V, Rath M, Pollmann W, Keeser W. Atypical facial pain – application of the IHS criteria in a clinical sample. Cephalalgia 1993; 13 Suppl 12: 84-88.

Sardella A, Demarosi F, Barbieri C, Lodi G. An up-to-date view on persistent idiopathic facial pain. Minerva Stomatol 2009; 58: 289-299.

13.12 Central neuropathic pain
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Cruccu G, Biasiotta A, Di Rezze S, Fiorelli M, Galeotti F, Innocenti P, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia and pain related to multiple sclerosis. Pain 2009; 143: 186-91.

Jensen TS, Rasmussen P, Reske-Nielsen E. Association of trigeminal neuralgia with multiple sclerosis : clinical pathological features. Acta Neurol Scand 1982; 65: 182-189.

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13.12.1 Central neuropathic pain attributed to multiple sclerosis (MS)
Mills RJ, Young CA, Smith ET. Central trigeminal involvement in multiple sclerosis using high-resolution MRI at 3 T. Br J Radiol 2010; 83: 493-498.

Osterberg A, Boivie J, Thuomas KA. Central pain in multiple sclerosis – prevalence and clinical characteristics. Eur J Pain 2005; 9: 531-542.

Osterberg A, Boivie J. Central pain in multiple sclerosis – sensory abnormalities. Eur J Pain 2010; 14: 104-110.

13.12.2 Central post-stroke pain
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Fitzek S, Baumgartner U, Fitzek C et al. Mechanisms and Predictors of chronic facial pain in lateral medullary infarction. Ann Neurol 2001; 49: 493-500.

Hong JH, Bai DS, Jeong JY, Choi BY, Chang CH, Kim SH, et al. Injury of the spino-thalamo-cortical pathway is necessary for central post-stroke pain. Eur Neurol 2010; 64: 163-168.

Kalita J, Kumar B, Misra UK, Pradhan PK. Central post stroke pain: clinical, MRI, and SPECT correlation. Pain Med 2011; 12: 282-288.

Klit H, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS. Central post-stroke pain: clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and management. Lancet-Neurology 2009; 8: 857-868.

MacGowan DJ, Janal MN, Clark WC, Wharton RN, Lazar RM, Sacco RL, et al. Central poststroke pain and Wallenberg’s lateral medullary infarction: frequency, character, and determinants in 63 patients. Neurology 1997; 49: 120-125.

Tuveson B, Leffler AS, Hansson P. Influence of heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation on spontaneous pain and dynamic mechanical allodynia in central post-stroke pain patients. Pain 2009; 143: 84-91.