7.2 Headache attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure

Description:
Orthostatic headache in the presence of low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure (either spontaneous or secondary), or CSF leakage, usually accompanied by neck pain, tinnitus, changes in hearing, photophophia and/or nausea. It remits after normalization of CSF pressure or successful sealing of the CSF leak.

Diagnostic criteria:
A. Any headache fulfilling criterion C
B. Low CSF pressure (<60 mm CSF) and/or evidence of CSF leakage on imaging
C. Headache has developed in temporal relation to the low CSF pressure or CSF leakage, or led to its discovery
D. Not better accounted for by another ICHD-3 diagnosis.

Comment:
7.2 Headache attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure is usually but not invariably orthostatic. Headache that significantly worsens soon after sitting upright or standing and/or improves after lying horizontally is likely to be caused by low CSF pressure, but this cannot be relied upon as a diagnostic criterion. Evidence of causation may depend upon onset in temporal relation to the presumed cause together with exclusion of other diagnoses.