8.1 Headache attributed to use of or exposure to a substance
Altura BM, Altura BT, Gebrewold A. Alcohol induced spasm of cerebral blood vessels. J Mental Sci 2000; 104: 972-999.

Ashina M, Bendtsen L, Jensen R, Olesen J. Nitric oxide-induced headache in patients with chronic tension-type headache. Brain 2000; 123: 1830-1837.

Askmark H, Lundberg PO, Olsson S. Drug related headache. Headache 1989; 29: 441-444.
Beck HG, Schulze WH, Suter GM. Carbon monoxide-a domestic hazard. JAMA 1940; 115: 1.

Birk S, Kruuse C, Petersen KA, Tfelt-Hansen P, Olesen J. The headache-inducing effect of cilostazol in human volunteers. Cephalalgia 2006; 26: 1304-1309.

Bonnet GF, Nepveux P. Migraine due to tyramine. Sem Hop 1971; 47: 2441-2445.

Brewerton TD, Murphy DL, Lesem MD, Brandt HA, Jimerson DC. Headache responses following m-chlorophenylpiperazine in bulimics and controls. Headache 1992; 32: 217-222.

Cleophas TJ, Niemeyer MG, van der Wall EE, van der Meulen J. Nitrate-induced headache in patients with stable angina pectoris: beneficial effect of starting on a low dose. Angiology 1996; 47: 679-685.

Council of Scientific Affairs. Aspartame: review of safety issues. JAMA 1985; 254: 400-402.

Cregler LL, Mark H. Medical complications of cocaine abuse. NEJM 1986; 315: 1495-1501.

Dhopesh V, Maany I, Herring C. The relationship of cocaine to headache in polysubstance abusers. Headache 1991; 31: 17-19.

Dhuna A, Pascual-Leone A, Belgrade M. Cocaine-related vascular headaches. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1991; 54: 803-806.

De Marinis M, Janiri L, Agnoli A. Headache in the use and withdrawal of opiates and other associated substances of abuse. Headache 1991; 31: 159-163.

Ekbom K. Nitroglycerin as a provocative agent in cluster headache. Arch Neurol 1968; 19: 487-493.

el-Mallakh RS. Marijuana and migraine. Headache 1987; 27: 442-443.

el-Mallakh RS, Kranzler HR, Kamanitz JR. Headaches and psychoactive substance use. Headache 1991; 31: 584-587.

Fanciullacci M, Alessandri M, Figini M, Geppetti P, Michelacci S. Increase in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide from the extracerebral circulation during nitroglycerin-induced cluster headache attack. Pain 1995; 60: 119-123.

Forbes HS, Cobb S, Fremont-Smith F. Cerebral edema and headache following carbon monoxide asphyxia. Arch Neurol Psychiatr 1924; 11: 164.

Ghose K, Carrol JD. Mechanisms of tyramine-induced migraine: similarities with dopamine and interactions with disulfiram and propranolol. Neuropsychiobiol 1984; 12: 122-126.

Gore ME, Salmon PR. Chinese restaurant syndrome: fact or fiction. Lancet 1980; 318: 251-252.
Hanington E, Harper AM. The role of tyramine in the etiology of migraine and related studies on the cerebral and intracerebral circulations. Headache 1968; 8: 84-97.

Iversen HK, Nielsen TM, Olesen J, Tfelt-Hansen P. Intravenous nitroglycerin as an experimental model of vascular headache. Basic characteristics. Pain 1989; 38: 17-24.

Kenney RA, Tidball CS. Human susceptibility to oral monosodium 1-glutamate. Am J Clin Nutr 1972; 25: 140-146.

Krabbe AA, Olesen J. Headache provocation by continuous intravenous infusion of histamine, clinical results and receptor mechanisms. Pain 1980; 8:253-259.

Kruuse C, Thomsen LL, Jacobsen TB, Olesen J. The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil has no effect on cerebral blood flow or blood velocity, but nevertheless induces headache in healthy subjects. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2002; 22: 1124-1131.

Kruuse C, Jacobsen TB, Lassen LH, Thomsen LL, Hasselbalch SG, Dige-Petersen H, Olesen J. Dipyridamole dilates large cerebral arteries concomitant to headache induction in healthy subjects. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2000; 20: 1372-1379.

Lassen LH, Thomsen LL, Olesen J. Histamine induces migraine via the H receptor. Support for the NO-hypothesis of migraine. Neuroreport 1995; 6: 1475-1479.

Leon AS, Hunninghake DB, Bell C, Rassin DK, Tephly TR. Safety of long-term doses of aspartame. Arch Int Med 1989; 149: 2318-2324.

Leone M, Attanasio A, Croci D, Filippini G, D’Amico D, Grazzi L, Nespolo A, Bussone G. The serotonergic agent m-chlorophenylpiperazine induced migraine attacks: a controlled study. Neurology 2000; 55: 136-139.

Lichten E, Lichten J, Whitty A, Pieper D. The confirmation of a biochemical marker for women’s hormonal migraine : the depo-oestradiol challenge test. Headache 1996; 36: 367-371.
Lipton RB, Kwong CM, Solomon S. Headaches in hospitalized cocaine users. Headache 1989; 29: 225-228.

Magos AL, Brewster E, Singh R, O’Dowd T, Brincat M, Studd JWW. The effects of norethisterone in postmenopausal women on oestrogen replacement therapy: a model for the premenstrual syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1986; 93: 1290-1296.

Merrit JE, Williams PB. Vasospasm contributes to monosodium glutamate-induced headache. Headache 1990; 30: 575-580.

Murphree AB, Greenberg LA, Carrol RB. Neuropharmacologic effects of substances other than ethanol in alcoholic beverages. Fed Proc 1967; 26: 1468-1473.

Nappi RE, Cagnacci A, Granella F, Piccinini F, Polatti F, Facchinetti F. Course of primary headaches during hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 2001; 38: 157-163.
Schiffmann SS, Buckley CE, Sampson HA et al. Aspartame and susceptibility to headache. NEJM 1987; 317: 1181-1185.

Seltzer S. Foods and drug combinations, responsible for head and neck pain. Cephalalgia 1982; 2: 111-124.

Sicuteri F, Bene ED, Poggioni M, Bonazzi A. Unmasking latent dysnociception in healthy subjects. Headache 1987; 27: 180-185.

Tarasoff L, Kelly MF. Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review. Food Chem Toxicol 1993; 31: 1019-1035.

Thomsen LL, Kruse C, Iversen HK, Olesen J. A Nitric oxide donor triggers genuine migraine attacks. Eur J Neurol 1994; 1: 71-80.

Yang WH, Drouin MA, Herbert M, Mao Y, Kursh J. The monosodium glutamate symptom complex: assessment in a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997; 99: 757-762.

8.2 Medication-overuse headache
Aaseth K, Grande RB, Šaltytė Bent J, Lundqvist C, Russell MB. 3-years-follow-up of secondary chronic headaches. The Akershus study of chronic headache. Eur J Pain 2011; 15: 186-92.

Ala-Hurula V, Myllyla V, Hokkanen E. Ergotamine abuse: results of ergotamine discontinuation with special reference to the plasma concentrations. Cephalalgia 1982; 2: 189-195.

Ala-Hurula V, Myllyla V, Hokkanen E, Tokola O. Tolfenamic acid and ergotamine abuse. Headache 1981; 21: 240-242.

Allgulander C. History and current status of sedative-hypnotic drug use and abuse. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1986; 73: 465-478.

Andersson PG. Ergotamine headache. Headache 1975; 15: 118-121.

Bigal ME, Rapoport AM, Sheftell FD, Tepper SJ, Lipton RB. Transformed migraine and Medication overuse in a tertiary headache centre – clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. Cephalalgia 2004; 24: 483-490.

deMarinis M, Janiri L, Agnoli A. Headache in the use and withdrawal of opiates and other associated substances of abuse. Headache 1991; 31: 159-163.

Diener HC, Dichgans J, Scholz E, Geiselhart S, Gerber WD, Bille A. Analgesic-induced chronic headache: long-term results of withdrawal therapy. J Neurol 1989; 236: 9-14.

Evers S, Gralow I, Bauer B, Suhr B, Buchheister A, Husstedt IW, Ringelstein EB. Sumatriptan and ergotamine overuse and drug-induced headache: a clinicoepidemiologic study. Clin Neuropharmacol 1999; 22: 201-206.

Fanciullaci M, Alessandri M, Pietrini U, Briccolani-Bandini E, Beatrice S. Long-term ergotamine abuse: effect on adrenergically induced mydriasis. Clin Pharm Ther 1992; 51: 302-307.

Fritsche G, Frettlöh J, Hüppe M et al. Prevention of medication overuse in patients with migraine. Pain 2010; 151: 404-413.

Fuh JL, Wang SJ, Lu SR, Juang KD. Does medication overuse headache represent a behavior of dependence? Pain 2005; 119: 49-55.

Gaist D, Hallas J, Sindrup SH, Gram LF. Is overuse of sumatriptan a problem? A population-based study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 50: 161-165.

Gaist D, Tsiropoulus I, Sindrup SH, Hallas J, Rasmussen BK, Kragstrup J. Inappropriate use of sumatriptan: population based register and interview study. BMJ 1998; 316: 1352-1353.

Gossop M, Darke S, Griffiths P, Hando J, Powis B, Hall W, Strang J. The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS): psychometric properties of the SDS in English and Australian samples of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine users. Addiction 1995; 90: 607-614.

Granella F, Farina S, Malferrari G, Manzoni GC. Drug abuse in chronic headache: a clinicoepidemiologic study. Cephalalgia 1987; 7: 15-19.

Grande RB, Aaseth K, Saltyte Benth J, Gulbrandsen P, Russell MB, Lundqvist C. The Severity of Dependence Scale detects people with medication overuse: the Akershus study of chronic headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 2009; 80: 784-789.

Grande RB, Aaseth K, Šaltytė Bent J, Lundqvist C, Russell MB. Reduction of medication-overuse headache after modified brief intervention. The Akershus study on chronic headache. Eur J Neurol 2011; 18: 129-37.

Hering R, Steiner TJ. Abrupt outpatient withdrawal from medication in analgesic-abusing migraineurs. Lancet 1991; 337: 1442-1443.

Horton BT, Peters GA. Clinical manifestations of excessive use of ergotamine preparations and management of withdrawal effect: report of 52 cases. Headache 1963; 3: 214-226.

Katsarava Z, Fritsche G, Muessig M, Diener HC, Limmroth V. Clinical features of withdrawal headache following overuse of triptans and other headache drugs. Neurology 2001; 57: 1694-1698.
Kaube H, May A, Diener HC, Pfaffenrath V. Sumatriptan misuse in daily chronic headache. BMJ 1994; 308: 1573.

Limmroth V, Katsarava Z, Fritsche G, Diener HC. Headache after frequent use of new 5-HT agonists zolmitriptan and naratriptan. Lancet 1999; 353: 378.

Limmroth V, Katsarava Z, Fritsche G, Przywara S, Diener HC. Features of medication overuse headache following overuse of different acute headache drugs. Neurology 2002; 59: 1011-1014.
Lucas RN, Falkowski W. Ergotamine and methysergide abuse in patients with migraine. Br J Psychiatry 1973; 122: 199-203.

Lundqvist C, Grande RB, Aaseth K, Russell MB. The severity of dependence scale predicts prognosis of medication overuse headache. The Akershus study of chronic headache. Pain 2012; 153: 682-686.

Mathew NT, Kurman R, Perez F. Drug induced refractory headache – clinical features and management. Headache 1990; 30: 634-638.

Michultka DM, Blanchard EB, Appelbaum KA, Jaccard J, Dentinger MP. The refractory headache patient–2. High medication consumption (analgesic rebound) headache. Behav Res Ther 1989; 27: 411-420.

Nicolodi M, DelBianco PL, Sicuteri F. The way to serotonergic use and abuse in migraine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1997l17: 79-84.

Page H. Rebound headache from ergotamine withdrawal. JAMA 1981; 246: 719.

Rapoport A, Stang P, Gutterman DL, Cady R, Markley H, Weeks R, Saiers J, Fox AW. Analgesic rebound headache in clinical practice: data from a physician survey. Headache 1996; 36: 14-19.

Roswell AR, Neylan C, Wilkinson M. Ergotamine induced headache in migrainous patients.
Headache 1973; 13: 65-67.

Saper JR. Drug overuse among patients with headache. Neurol Clin 1983; 1: 465-477.

Schnider P, Aull S, Baumgartner C et al. Long-term outcome of patients with headache and drug abuse after inpatient withdrawal: five-year followup. Cephalalgia 1996; 16: 481-485.

Schnider P, Aull S, Feucht M. Use and abuse of analgesics in tension-type headache.
Cephalalgia 1994; 14: 162-167.

Seller EM, Busto UE, Kaplan HL, Somer G, Baylon GJ. Comparative abuse liability of codeine and naratriptan. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 63: 121.

Tfelt-Hansen P, Krabbe AA. Ergotamine. Do patients benefit from withdrawal? Cephalalgia 1981; 1: 29-32.

Von Korff M, Galer BS, Stang P. Chronic use of symptomatic headache medications. Pain 1995; 62: 179-186.

Walker J, Parisi S, Olive D. Analgesic rebound headache: experience in a community hospital. Southern Med J 1993; 86: 1202-1205.

8.3 Headache attributed to substance withdrawal
Abbott PJ. Caffeine: a toxicological overview. Med J Aust 1986; 145: 518-521.

Epstein MT, Hockaday JM, Hockaday TDR. Migraine and reproductive hormones through the menstrual cycle. Lancet 1975; i: 543-548.

Laska EM, Sunshine A, Mueller F, Elvers WB, Siegel C, Rubin A. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant. JAMA 1984; 251: 1711-1718.

Lichten E, Lichten J, Whitty A, Pieper D. The confirmation of a biochemical marker for women’s hormonal migraine : the depo-oestradiol challenge test. Headache 1996; 36: 367-371.

Silverman K, Evans SM, Strain EC, Griffiths RR. Withdrawal syndrome after the double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. NEJM 1992; 327: 1109-1114.

Somerville BW. Estrogen-withdrawal migraine. I. Duration of exposure required and attempted prophylaxis by premenstrual estrogen administration. Neurology 1975; 25: 239-244.

Somerville BW. Estrogen-withdrawal migraine. II. Attempted prophylaxis by continuous estradiol administration. Neurology 1975; 25: 245-250.

Somerville BW. The role of estradiol withdrawal in the etiology of menstrual migraine. Neurology 1972; 22: 355-365.

Somerville BW. The role of progesterone in menstrual migraine. Neurology 1971; 21: 853-859.

van Dusseldorp M, Katan MB. Headache caused by caffeine withdrawal among moderate coffee drinkers switched from ordinary to decaffeinated coffee: a 12 week double blind trial. BMJ 1990; 300: 1558-1559.