6.1.1 Headache attributed to ischaemic stroke (cerebral infarction)
Ferro JM, Melo TP, Oliveira V, Salgado AV, Crespo M, Canhao P, Pinto AN. A multivariate study of headache associated with ischemic stroke. Headache 1995; 35: 315-319.

Fisher CM. Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease. In : Vinken PH, Bruyn GW eds. Headache and cranial neuralgias. Handbook of clinical neurology. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1968; 5: 124-156.

Gorelick PB, Hier DB, Caplan LR, Langenberg D. Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease. Neurology 1986; 36: 1445-1450.

Portenoy RK, Abissi CJ, Lipton RB, Berger AR, Mebler MF, Baglivo J, Solomon S. Headache in cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1984; 15: 1009-1012.

Schwedt TJ, Dodick DW. Thunderclap stroke: embolic cerebellar infarcts presenting as thunderclap headache. Headache 2006; 46; 520-522.

Verdelho A, Ferro JM, Melo T, Canhao P, Falcao F. Headache in acute stroke. A prospective study in the first 8 days. Cephalalgia 2008; 28; 346-354.

6.1.2 Headache attributed to transient ischaemic attack (TIA)
Caplan LR. Migraine and vertebrobasilar ischemia. Neurology 1991; 41: 55-61.

Ferro JM, Costa I, Melo TP, Canhao P, Oliveira V, Salgado AV, Crespo M, Pinto AN. Headache associated with transient ischemic attacks. Headache 1995; 35: 544-548.

Fisher CM. Migraine accompaniments versus arteriosclerotic ischemia. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1968; 93: 211-213.

Fisher CM. Cerebral ischemia: less familiar types. Clin Neurosurg 1971; 18: 267-336.

Fisher CM. Late-life migraine accompaniements as a cause of unexplained transient ischemic attacks. Can J Med Sci 1980; 7: 9-17.

Martsen BH, Sorensen PS, Marquardsen J. Transient ischemic attacks in young patients: a thromboembolic or migrainous manifestation? A ten-year follow-up of 46 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1990; 53: 1029-1033.

6.2.1 Headache attributed to non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage
Ferro JM, Melo TP, Guerreiro M. Headaches in intracerebral hemorrhage survivors. Neurology 1998; 50: 203-207.

Gorelick PB, Hier DB, Caplan LR, Langenberg P. Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease. Neurology 1986; 36: 1445-1450.

Jensen TS, Gorrelick PB. Headache associated with stroke and intracranial hematoma. In: The Headaches. 2nd edition.J. Olesen, P. Telt-Hansen, KMA Welch eds. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2000, 781-787.

Melo TP, Pinto AN, Ferro JM. Headache in intracerebral hematomas. Neurology 1996; 47: 494-500.
Schuaib A, Metz L, and Hing T. Migraine and intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Cephalalgia 1989; 9: 59-61.

Verdelho A, Ferro JM, Melo T, Canhao P, Falcao F. Headache in acute stroke. A prospective study in the first 8 days. Cephalalgia 2008; 28; 346-354.

6.2.2 Headache attributed to non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)
Bassi P, Bandera R, Loiero M, Togoni G, Mangoni A. Warning signs in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cooperative tudy. Acta Neurol Scand 1991; 84: 277-281.

Edlow JA, Caplan LR. Avoiding pitfalls in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. NEJM 2000; 342: 29-36.

Evans RW. Diagnostic testing for the evaluation of headaches. Neurology Clinics 1996; 14: 1-26.
Linn FHH, Rinkel GJE, Algra A, van Gijn J. Headache characteristics in subarachnoid haemorrhage and benign thunderclap headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1998; 65: 791-793.

Mayberg MR, Batjer HH, Dacey R, Diringer M, Haley EC, Heros RC, Sternau LL, Torner J, Adams HP, Feinberg W, Thies W. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

A statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Stroke 1994; 25: 2315-2328.

Ramirez-Lassepas M, Espinosa CE, Cicero JJ, Johnston KL, Cipolle RJ, Barber DL. Predictors of intracranial pathologic findings in patients who seek emergency care because of headache. Arch Neurol 1997; 54: 1506-1509.

Seymour JJ, Moscati RM, Jehle DV. Response of headaches to non-narcotic analgesics resulting in missed intracranial hemorrhage. Am J Emerg Med 1995; 13: 43-45.

Sidman R, Vconnolly E, Lemke T. Subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosis : lumbar puncture is still needed when the computed tomography scan is normal. Acad Emerg Med 1996; 3: 827-831.

Van der Wee N, Rinkel GJE, Hasan D, van Gijn J. Detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage on early CT: is lumbar puncture still needed after a negative scan? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1995; 58: 357-359.

Verweij RD, Wijdicks EFM, van Gijn J. Warning headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A case control study. Arch Neurol 1988; 45: 1019-1020.

Weir B. Diagnostic aspects of SAH. In: Weir B. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: causes and cures. New York: Oxford University Press 1998, 144-176.

6.2.3 Headache attributed to non-traumatic acute subdural haemorrhage (ASDH)
Chhiber SS, Singh JP. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma of arterial origin: a report of four cases and review of literature. Neurol India 2010; 58: 654-658.

Depreitere B, Van Calenbergh F, van Loon J. A clinical comparison of non-traumatic acute subdural haematomas either related to coagulopathy or of arterial origin without coagulopathy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2003; 145: 541-546

Koerbel A, Ernemann U, Freudenstein D. Acute subdural hematoma without subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm: case report and review of literature. Br J Radiol 2005; 78: 646-650.

Missori P, Fenga L, Maraglino C, Rocchi G, Nardacci B, Calderaro G, Salvati M, Delfini R. Spontaneous acute subdural hematomas. A clinical comparison with traumatic acute subdural hematomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2000; 142: 697-701.

de Noronha RJ, Sharrack B, Hadjivassiliou M, Romanowski CA. Subdural haematoma: a potentially serious consequence of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003; 74: 752-755.

Ogawa K, Oishi M, Mizutani T, Maejima S, Mori T. Dural arteriovenous fistula on the convexity presenting with pure acute subdural hematoma. Acta Neurol Belg 2010; 110: 190-192.

Takahashi S, Shinoda J, Hayashi T. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in an Adult Patient Presenting as Headache and Acute Subdural Hematoma. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2010; 21: 338-340.

6.3.1 Headache attributed to unruptured saccular aneurysm
Byruma EP, McGregor JM, Christoforidisa GA. Thunderclap headache without subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with regrowth of previously coil-occluded aneurysms. Am J Neuroradiol 2009; 30: 1059-1061.

Day JW, Raskin NH. Thunderclap headache: symptom of unruptured cerebral aneurysm. Lancet 1986; 2: 1247-1248.

Linn FHH, Wijdicks EFM, van der Graaf Y, Weerdesteyn-van Vliet FAC, Bartelds A, van Gijn J. Prospective study of sentinel headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet 1994; 344: 590-593.

Markus HS. A prospective follow-up of thunderclap headache mimicking subarachnoid haemorrhage. J. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1991; 54: 1117-1125.

Mas JL, Baron JC, Bousser MG, Chiras J. Stroke, migraine and inracranial aneurysm: a case report. Stroke 1986; 17: 1019-1021.

Ostergard JR, Ramadan N. Unruptured vascular malformations and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In J Olesen, P Tfelt-Hansen, KMA Welch eds. The Headaches 2nd edition. Philadelphia: Lipincott Williams and Wilkins 2000: 789-796.

Raps EC, Rogers JD, Galetta DL, Solomon RA, Lennihan L, Klebanoff LM, Fink ME. The clinical spectrum of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Arch Neurol 1993; 50: 265-268.

Schievink WI. Intracranial aneurysms. NEJM 1997; 336: 28-40.

Wijdicks EFM, Kerkhoff H, van Gijn J. Long-term follow-up of 71 patients with thunderclap headache mimicking subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet 1988; 2: 68-70.

6.3.2 Headache attributed to arteriovenous malformation (AVM)

Bruyn GW. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation and migraine. Cephalalgia 1984; 4: 191-207.
Haas DC. Arteriovenous malformations and migraine : case reports and an analysis of the relationship. Headache 1991; 31: 509-513.

Troost BT, Mark LE, Maroon JC. Resolution of classic migraine after removal of an occipital lobe AVM. Ann Neurol 1979; 5: 199-201.

6.3.3 Headache attributed to dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF)
Garza I. Images from headache: a “noisy” headache: dural arteriovenous fistula resembling new daily persistent headache. Headache 2008; 48; 1120-1121.

Malek AM, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 1998; 8: 445-468.

6.3.4 Headache attributed to cavernous angioma
Afridi S, Goadsby PJ. New onset migraine with a brain stem cavernous angioma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 2003;74 :680-682.

De Benedittis G. SUNCT syndrome associated with cavernous angioma of the brain stem. Cephalalgia 1996; 16: 503-506.

Denier C, Labauge P, Brunereau L, Cavé-Riant F, Marchelli F, Arnoult M, Cecillon M, Maciazek J, Joutel A, Tournier-Lasserve E. Clinical features of cerebral cavernous malformations patients with krit1 mutations. Ann Neurol 2004; 55: 213-220.

Epstein MA, Beerman PH, Schut L. Cavernous angioma presenting as atypical facial and head pain. J Child Neurol 1990; 5: 27-30.

Kivelev J, Niemela M, Kivisaari R, Hernesniemi J. Intraventricular cerebral cavernomas: a series of 12 patients and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 2010; 112: 140-149.

Robinson JR, Awad IA, Little JR. Natural history of the cavernous angioma. J Neurosurg 1991; 75: 709-714.

6.3.5 Headache attributed to encephalotrigeminal or leptomeningeal angiomatosis (Sturge Weber syndrome)
Chabriat H, Pappata S, Traykov L, Kurtz A, Bousser MG. Angiomatose de Sturge Weber responsable d’une hémiplégie sans infarctus cérébral en fin de grossesse. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1996; 152: 536-541.

Klapper J. Headache in Sturge-Weber syndrome. Headache 1994; 34: 521-522.

Lisotto C, Mainardi F, Maggioni F, Zanchin G. Headache in Sturge–Weber syndrome: a case report and review of the Literature. Cephalalgia 2004; 24: 1001–1004

Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Velazquez-Fragua R and Viano J. Sturge-Weber syndrome: study of 55 patients. Can J Neurol Sci 2008; 35: 301-307

6.4.1 Headache attributed to giant cell arteritis (GCA)
Caselli RJ, Hunder GG. Neurologic aspects of giant cell (temporal) arteritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1993; 19: 941-953.

Gonzalez-Gay MA, Barros S, Lopez-Diaz MJ, Garcia-Porrua C, Sanchez-Andrade A and Llorca J (2005). Giant cell arteritis: disease patterns of clinical presentation in a series of 240 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 84: 269-276.

Hunder GG. Giant cell (temporal) arteritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1990; 16: 399-409.
Lee AG, Brazis PW. Temporal arteritis : a clinical approach. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 1364-1370.

Mukhtyar C, Guillevin L, Cid MC, Dasgupta B, de Groot K, Gross W, Hauser T, Hellmich B, Jayne D, Kallenberg CG, Merkel PA, Raspe H, Salvarani C, Scott DG, Stegeman C, Watts R, Westman K, Witter J, Yazici H and Luqmani R. EULAR recommendations for the management of large vessel vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis 2009; 68: 318-323.

Solomon S, Cappa KG. The headache of temporal arteritis. J Am Geriatr Soc 1987; 35: 163-165.
Thielen KR, Wydicks EFM, Nichols DA. Giant cell (temporal) arteritis: involvement of the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Mayo Clin Proc 1998; 73: 444-446.

6.4.2, 6.4.3 Headache attributed to primary or secondary angiitis of the central nervous system
Calabrese LH, Furlan AH, Gragg LA, Ropos TH. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system : diagnostic criteria and clinical approach. Cleve J Med 1992: 59: 293-306.

Calabrese LH, Duna GF, Lie JT. Vasculitis in the central nervous system ; Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1189-1201.

Hajj-Ali RA, Singhal AB, Benseler S, Molloy E and Calabrese LH. Primary angiitis of the CNS. Lancet Neurol 2011; 10: 561-572.

Harris KG, Tran DD, Sickels WJ, Cornell SH, Yuh WTC. Diagnosing intracranial vasculitis: the roles or MR and angiography. Am J Neuroradiol 1994; 15: 317-330.

Kumar R, Wijdicks EFM, Brown RD, Parisi JE, Hammond CA. Isolated angiitis of the CNS presenting as subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1997; 62: 649-651.

Lie JT. Primary (granulomatous) angiitis of the central nervous system : a clinicopathologic analysis of 15 new cases and a review of the literature. Hum Pathol 1992; 23: 164-171.

Moore PM. Vasculitis of the central nervous system. Semin Neurol 1994; 14: 313-319.

Salvarani C, Brown RD, Jr., Calamia KT, Christianson TJ, Weigand SD, Miller DV et al. Primary central nervous system vasculitis: analysis of 101 patients. Ann Neurol 2007; 62; 442-451.

Savage COS, Harper L, Cockwell P, Adu D, Howie AJ. ABC of arterial and vascular disease: vasculitis. BMJ 2000; 320: 1325-1328.

6.5.1 Headache or facial or neck pain attributed to cervical carotid or vertebral artery dissection
Arnold M, Cumurciuc R, Stapf C, Favrole P, Berthet K and Bousser MG. Pain as the only symptom of cervical artery dissection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 2006; 77; 1021-1024.

Biousse V, D’Anglejan-Chatillon J, Touboul PJ, Amarenco P, Bousser MG.. Time course of symptoms in extracranial carotid artery dissections. A series of 80 patients. Stroke 1995; 26: 235-239.

Debette S, Leys D. Cervical-artery dissections: predisposing factors, diagnosis, and outcome. Lancet-Neurol 2009; 8: 668-678.

Fisher CM. The headache and pain of spontaneous carotid dissection. Headache 1982; 22: 60-65.
Guillon B, Lévy C, Bousser MG.. Internal carotid artery dissection: an update. J Neurol Sci 1998; 153: 146-158.

Nakatomi H, Nagata K, Kawamoto S, Shiokawa Y. Ruptured dissecting aneurysm as a cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage of unverified etiology. Stroke 1997; 28: 1278-1282.

Ramadan NM, Tietjen GE, Levine SR, Welch KMA. Scintillating scotomata associated with internal carotid artery dissection: report of three cases. Neurology 1991; 41: 1084-1087.

Silbert PL, Mokri B, Schievink WI. Headache and neck pain in spontaneous internal carotid and verterbral artery dissections. Neurology 1995; 45: 1517-1522.

Sturzenegger M. Headache and neck pain. The warning symptoms of vertebral artery dissection. Headache 1994; 34: 187-193.

Tzourio C, Benslamia L, Guillon B, Aïdi S, Bertrand M, Berthet K, Bousser MG. Migraine and the risk of cervical artery dissection: a case-control study. Neurology 2002; 59: 435-437.

6.5.2 Post-endarterectomy headache
Breen JC, Caplan LR, DeWitt LD, Belkin M, Mackey WC, Donnell TP. Brain edema after carotid surgery. Neurology 1996; 46: 175-181.

De Marinis M, Zaccaria A, Faraglia V, Fiorani P, Maira G, Agnoli A. Post endarterectomy headache and the role of the oculo-sympathetic system. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1991; 54: 314-317.

Ille O, Woimant F, Pruna A, Corabianu O, Idatte JM, Haguenau M. Hypertensive encephalopathy after bilateral carotid endarterectomy. Stroke 1995; 26: 488-491.

Leviton A, Caplan L, Salzman E. Severe headache after carotid endarterectomy. Headache 1975; 15: 207-209.

Tehindrazanarivelo A, Lutz G, Petitjean C, Bousser MG. Headache following carotid endarterectomy: a prospective study. Cephalalgia 1991; 11 suppl 11: 353.

6.5.3 Headache attributed to carotid or vertebral angioplasty
Dietrich EB, Ndiaye M, Reid DB. Stenting in the carotid artery. Experience in 110 patients. J Endovasc Surg 1996; 3: 42-62.

Gil-Peralta A, Mayol A, Gonzalez Marcos JR, Gonzalez A, Ruano J, Boza F, Duran F. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid arteries; Results, complications and follow-up. Stroke 1996; 27: 2271-2273.

McCabe DJH, Brown MM, Clifton A. Fatal cerebral reperfusion hemorrhage after carotid stenting. Stroke 1999; 30: 2483-2486.

Munari LM, Belloni G, Moschini L, Mauro A, Pezzuoli G, Porta M. Carotid pain during percutaneous angioplasty. Pathophysiology and clinical features. Cephalalgia 1994; 14: 127-131.

Schoser BG, Heesen C, Eckert B, Thie A.. Cerebral hyperperfusion injury after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of extracranial arteries. J Neurol 1997; 244: 101-104.

6.6 Headache attributed to cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT)
Aidi S, Chaunu MP, Biousse V, Bousser MG. Changing pattern of headache pointing to cerebral venous thrombosis after lumbar puncture and intra venous high dose cortico-steroids. Headache 1999; 39: 559-564.

Biousse V, Ameri A, Bousser MG. Isolated intracranial hypertension as the only sign of cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurology 1999; 53: 1537-1542.

Bousser MG, Ferro JM. Cerebral venous thrombosis: an update. Lancet-Neurol 2007; 6; 162-170.

Cumurciuc R, Crassard I, Sarov M, Valade D and Bousser MG. Headache as the only neurological sign of cerebral venous thrombosis: a series of 17 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 2005; 76; 1084-1087.

De Bruijn SFTM, Stam J, Kappelle LJ for CVST study group. Thunderclap headache as first symptom of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Lancet 1996; 348: 1623-1625.

Leker RR, Steiner I. Features of dural sinus thrombosis simulating pseudotumor cerebri. Eur J Neurol 1999; 6: 601-604.

Newman DS, Levine SR, Curtis VL, Welch KMA : Migraine like visual phenomena associated with cerebral venous thrombosis. Headache 1989; 29: 82-85.

Wasay M, Kojan S, Dai AI, Bobustuc G and Sheikh Z. Headache in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: incidence, pattern and location in 200 consecutive patients. J Headache Pain 2011; 11; 137-139.

6.7.1 Headache attributed to an intracranial endovascular procedure
Gil-Gouveia R, Fernandes Sousa R, Lopes L, Campos J and Pavao Martins I. Headaches during angiography and endovascular procedures. J Neurol 2007; 254; 591-596.

Martins IP, Baeta E, Paiva T, Campos J, Gomes L. Headaches during intracranial endovascular procedures: a possible model for vascular headache. Headache 1993; 23: 227-233.

Nichols FT, Mawad M, Mohr JP, Hilal S, Adams RJ. Focal headache during balloon inflation in the vertebral and basilar arteries. Headache 1993; 33: 87-89.

Nichols FT, Mawad M, Mohr JP, Stein B, Hilal S, Michelsen WJ. Focal headache during balloon inflation in the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries. Stroke 1990; 21: 555-559.

6.7.2 Angiography headache
Gil-Gouveia RS, Sousa RF, Lopes L, Campos J, Martins IP. Post-angiography headaches. J Headache Pain 2008; 9: 327-330.

Ramadan NM, Gilkey SJ, Mitchell M, Sawaya KL, Mitsias P. Postangiography headache. Headache 1995;35: 21-24.

Shuaib A, Hachinski VC. Migraine and the risks from angiogaphy. Arch Neurol 1988; 45: 911-912.

6.7.3 Headache attributed to reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) and Headache probably attributed to reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome
Call GK, Fleming MC, Sealfon S, Levine H, Kistler JP, Fisher CM. Reversible cerebral segmental vasoconstriction. Stroke 1988; 19: 1159-1170.

Calabrese LH, Dodick DW, Schwedt TJ and Singhal AB. Narrative review: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. Ann Intern Med. 2007; 146; 34-44.

Chen SP, Fuh JL, Lirng JF, Chang FC and Wang SJ. Recurrent primary thunderclap headache and benign CNS angiopathy: spectra of the same disorder? Neurology 2006; 67; 2164-2169.

Chen SP, Fuh JL, Wang SJ, Chang FC, Lirng JF, Fang YC et al. Magnetic resonance angiography in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. Ann Neurol 2010; 67; 648-656.

Ducros A, Boukobza M, Porcher R, Sarov M, Valade D and Bousser MG. The clinical and radiological spectrum of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. A prospective series of 67 patients. Brain. 2007; 130; 3091-3101.

Ducros A, Bousser MG. Thunderclap headache. BMJ 2012; 345: e8557.

Ducros A, Fiedler U, Porcher R, Boukobza M, Stapf C, Bousser MG. Hemorrhagic manifestations of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Frequency, features, and risk factors. Stroke 2010; 41:2505-2511

Dodick DW, Brown RD, Britton JW, Huston J. Non aneurysmal thunderclap headache with diffuse, multifocal segmental and reversible vasospasm. Cephalalgia 1999; 19: 118-123.

Singhal AB, Hajj-Ali RA, Topcuoglu MA, Fok J, Bena J, Yang D et al. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes: analysis of 139 cases. Arch Neurol 2011; 68; 1005-1012.

6.7.4 Headache attributed to intracranial arterial dissection
Dlamini N, Freeman JL, Mackay MT, Hawkins C, Shroff M, Fullerton HJ et al. Intracranial dissection mimicking transient cerebral arteriopathy in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. J Child Neurol 2011; 26; 1203-1206.

Sharif AA, Remley KB, Clark HB. Middle cerebral artery dissection. A clinicopathologic study. Neurology 1995; 45: 1929–1231.

Szatmary Z, Boukobza M, Vahedi K, Stapf C, Houdart E and Bousser MG. Orgasmic headache and middle cerebral artery dissection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 2006; 77; 693-694.

6.8.1 Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)
Chabriat H, Tournier-Lasserve E, Vahedi K, Leys D, Joutel A, Nibbio A, Escailla JP, Iba-Zizen MT, Bracard S, Tehindrazanarivelo A, Gastaut JL, Bousser MG. Autosomal dominant migraine with MRI white matter abnormalities mapping to the CADASIL locus. Neurology 1995; 45: 1086-1091.

Chabriat H, Vahedi K, Iba-Zizen MT, Joutel A, Nibbio A, Nagy TG, Krebs MO, Julien J, Dubois B, Ducrocq X, Levasseur M, Homeyer P, Mas JL, Lyon-Caen O, Tournier-Lasserve E, Bousser MG.
Clinical spectrum of CADASIL: a study of 7 families. Lancet 1995; 346: 934-939.

Joutel A, Corpechot C, Ducros A, Katayoun V, Chabriat H, Mouton P, Alamowitch S, Domenga V, Cécillion M, Maréchal E, Maciazek J, Vayssière C, Cruaud C, Cabanis EA, Ruchoux MM, Weissenbach J, Bacxh JF, Bousser MG, Tournier-Lasserve E. “Notch 3” mutations in CADASIL, a hereditary adult-onset condition causing stroke and dementia. Nature 1996; 383: 707-710.

Vahedi K, Chabriat H, Levy C, Joutel A, Tournier-Lasserve E, Bousser MG. Migraine with aura and brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in patients with CADASIL. Arch Neurol 2004; 61: 1237-1240.

6.8.2 Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
Klopstock A, May P, Siebel E, Papagiannuli E, Diener NC, Heichmann H. Mitochondrial DNA in migraine with aura. Neurology 1996; 46: 1735-1738.

Koo B, Becker L, Chuang S, Merante F, Robinson BH, Mac Gregor D, Tein I, Ho VB, McGreal DA, Wherrett JR, Logan WJ. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes (MELAS): clinical, radiological, pathological and genetic observations. Ann Neurol 1993; 34: 25-32.

Ojaimi J, Katsabanis S, Bower S, Quigley A, Byrne E. Mitochondrial DNA in stroke and migraine with aura. Cerebrovasc Dis 1998; 8: 102-106.

Pavlakis SG, Phillips PC, Di Mauro S, De Vivo DC, Rowland P. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes: a distinct clinical syndrome. Ann Neurol 1984; 16: 481-488.

6.8.3 Headache attributed to another genetic vasculopathy
Gould DB, Phalan FC, van Mil SE, Sundberg JP, Vahedi K, Massin P, et al. Role of COL4A1 in small-vessel disease and hemorrhagic stroke. NEJM 2006; 354:1489-1496.

Hottenga JJ, Vanmolkot KR, Kors EE, Kheradmand Kia S, de Jong PT, Haan J, et al. The 3p21.1-p21.3 hereditary vascular retinopathy locus increases the risk for Raynaud’s phenomenon and migraine. Cephalalgia 2005; 25: 1168-1172.

Richards A, van den Maagdenberg AM, Jen JC, Kavanagh D, Bertram P, Spitzer D, Liszewski MK, Barilla-Labarca ML, Terwindt GM, Kasai Y, McLellan M, Grand MG, Vanmolkot KR, de Vries B, Wan J, Kane MJ, Mamsa H, Schäfer R, Stam AH, Haan J, de Jong PT, Storimans CW, van Schooneveld MJ, Oosterhuis JA, Gschwendter A, Dichgans M, Kotschet KE, Hodgkinson S, Hardy TA, Delatycki MB, Hajj-Ali RA, Kothari PH, Nelson SF, Frants RR, Baloh RW, Ferrari MD, Atkinson JP. C-terminal truncations in human 3′-5′ DNA exonuclease TREX1 cause autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy. Nat Genet 2007;39: 1068-1070.

Terwindt GM, Haan J, Ophoff RA, Groenen SM, Storimans CW, Lanser JB, et al. Clinical and genetic analysis of a large Dutch family with autosomal dominant vascular retinopathy, migraine and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Brain 1998; 121: 303-316.

Vahedi K, Boukobza M, Massin P, Gould DB, Tournier-Laserve E, Bousser MG. Clinical and brain MRI follow-up study of a family with COL4A1 mutation. Neurology 2007; 69: 1564-1568.

Vahedi K, Massin P, Guichard JP, Miocque S, Polivka M, Goutières F, et al. Hereditary infantile hemiparesis, retinal arteriolar tortuosity, and leukoencephalopathy. Neurology 2003; 60: 57-63.

6.9 Headache attributed to pituitary apoplexy
Carral F. Pituitary apoplexy. Arch Neurol 2001; 58: 1143-1144.

Chakeres DW, Curtin A, Ford G. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary and parasellar abnormalities. Radiol Clin North Am 1989; 27: 265-281.

Da Motta LA, de Mello PA, de Lacerda CM, Neto AP, Da Motta LD, Filho MF. Pituitary apoplexy.

Clinical course, endocrine evaluations and treatment analysis. J Neurosurg Sci 1991; 43: 25-36.
Dodick DW, Wijdicks EFM.. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as thunderclap headache. Neurology 1998; 50: 1510-1511.

Hernandez A, Angeles Del Real M, Aguirre M, Vaamonde J, Gudin M, Ibanez R. Pituitary apoplexy: a transient benign presentation mimicking with subarachnoid hemorrhage with negative angiography. Eur J Neurol 1998; 5: 499-501.

Lee CC, Cho AS, Carter WA. Emergency department presentation of pituitary apoplexy. Am J Emerg Med 2000; 18: 328-331.

McFadzean RM, Doyle D, Rampling R, Teasdale E, Teasdale G. Pituitary apoplexy and its effect on vision. Neurosurgery 1991; 29: 669-675.